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Pied-Reptiles

piebald-veiled-chameleon

piebald-reptiles-part-2-snakes

Bearded dragon (piebald male rare)-Youtube Video

First record of a piebald Selvagens Gecko Tarentola boettgeri bischoffi (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

Atypical  colorations  resulting  from  a  deficiency  of colour pigments are often reported in the herpetological literature.  Such  conditions  may  affect  the  entire  body or only part of it and can range from “true” albinism, a hereditary lack of pigmentation caused by a deficiency in  one  of  the  enzymes  involved  in  melanin  synthesis, in  which  the  animal  completely  lacks  pigmentation in  all  portions  of  the  body,  including  the  eyes,  to leucism, characterized by a deficiency in integumentary pigmentation while still preserving normally pigmented  eyes.  This  last  condition  is  usually  caused by  developmental  anomalies  in  the  differentiation  of the  pigment  cells,  do  not  necessarily  involve  genetic mutations and may be restricted to some body regions (thus   generating   a   “piebald”   phenotype   (Acevedo, Torres and Aguayo-Lobo, 2009)) or to the whole body, with the exception of the retina (Dyrkacz, 1981)

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A nonsense mutation in TFEC is the likely cause of the recessive piebald phenotype in ball pythons

A nonsense mutation in TFEC is the likely cause of the recessive piebald phenotype in ball pythons

Abstract13 Captive-bred ball pythons (Pythonregius) represent a powerful model system for studying the 14genetic basis of colour variation and Mendelian phenotypes in vertebrates. Although hundreds 15of Mendelian phenotypes (colour morphs) affecting colouration and patterning have been 16described for ball pythons, the genes causing these colour morphs remain unknown. Here, we 17used crowdsourcing of samples from commercial ball python breeders to investigate the 18genetic basis of a classic phenotype found in the pet trade, the piebald [characterized by 19dorsolateral patches of unpigmented (white) skin]. We used whole-genome sequencing of 20pooled samples followed by population genetic methods to delineate the genomic region 21containing the causal gene. We identified TFEC of the MIT-family of transcription factors as a 22candidate gene. Functional annotation of SNPs identified a nonsense mutation in TFEC, which 23we conclude is the likely causal variant for the piebald phenotype. Our work shows that ball 24python colour morphs have the potential to be an excellent model system for studying the 25genetic basis of pigment variation in vertebrates, and highlights how collaborations with 26commercial breeders can accelerate discoveries.272829303132(which was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission. The copyright holder for this preprintthis version posted November 1, 2020. ; https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.30.362970doi: bioRxiv preprint

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Herpetology Notes, volume 8: 179-181 (2015) (published online on 10 April 2015)

Leucism in the Amazonian diurnal frog Anomaloglossus stepheni (Martins, 1989) (Anura: Aromobatidae)

Leandro João Carneiro de Lima Moraes1,* and Igor Luis Kaefer21 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA. Av. Efigênio Sales 2239, 69060-020, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil2 Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Av. Rodrigo Octávio 6200, 69077-000, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. * Corresponding author. E-mail: leandro.jclm@gmail.com

Phenotypic  abnormalities  in  coloration  patterns  can occur in individuals of a certain species usually due to genetic  or  environmental  factors  that  cause  an  excess or  deficit  in  the  metabolism  of  dermal  pigmentation, restricted  to  a  region  or  throughout  the  entire  body (Duellman and Trueb, 1994; Hayley-McCardle, 2012). Several  divergent  classifications  for  these  events  are based  on  extent  of  pigmentation  loss,  but  among  the main  recognized  types  we  can  cite  the  piebaldism, leucism and albinism (Miller, 2005; Abreu et al., 2013). Piebaldism occurs when there are depigmented blotches along  the  animal’s  body  (Acevedo  et  al.,  2009)  and leucism  when  the  animal’s  body  is  partially  or  totally depigmented, with remaining margins of the body and eyes  pigmented,  as  albinism  occurs  in  animals  with complete absence of pigmentation, including the eyes, which becomes reddish or pink (Fertl and Rosel, 2002; Miller, 2005). Although many cases of depigmentation for the major vertebrates lineages are documented, such as  for  fishes  (e.g.,  Teixeira  and  Araújo,  2002),  birds (e.g.,  Nogueira  and Alves,  2011),  reptiles  (e.g., Abegg et  al.,  2014;  Erickson  and  Kaefer,  in  press),  mammals (e.g., Abreu  et  al.,  2013)  and  amphibians  (e.g.,Toledo et  al.,  2011;  Elgue  et  al.,  2013),

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Herpetology Notes, volume 11: 1009-1019 (2018) (published online on 27 November 2018)

New records and an updated list of the herpetofauna of Kastellorizo and the adjacent islet Psomi         (Dodecanese, SE Greece)

Konstantinos Kalaentzis1,*, Ilias Strachinis1, Philippos Katsiyiannis2, Peter Oefinger3, and Christos Kazilas11 School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.2 Present address: Kato Platanovrysi, 25008 Achaia, Greece.3

 During  our  visit  in  May  2017  one  of  the  four  Anatolian  Worm  Lizards  observed,  presented  piebald morphotype

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 A case of piebaldism in the Anatolian Worm Lizard

 Herpetology Notes, volume 11: 527-529 (2018) (published online on 25 July 2018)

 A case of piebaldism in the Anatolian Worm Lizard, Blanus strauchi (Bedriaga, 1884), from Kastellorizo Island, Greece (Squamata: Blanidae)Christos Kazilas1,*, Konstantinos Kalaentzis1, and Ilias Strachinis11 School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece* Corresponding author. E-mail: ckazilas@bio.auth.gr

Chromatic  aberrations  are  pigmentation  anomalies that  lead  to  abnormal  colour  variation  of  the  skin  and derivatives (Rook et al., 1998). Such disorders may be caused by a deficiency of colour pigments and they can be described by various terms, although there is a general confusion  as  to  their  correct  usage  in  the  literature (Lucati and Lopes-Baucells, 2016; Zalapa et al., 2016). The term albinism is used to describe a congenital and inherited  condition  where  melanocytes  fail  to  produce normal  amounts  of  melanin  in  eyes,  skin,  or  both, through recessive allele expression (Bechtel, 1991). In contrast, leucism refers to the absence of pigmentation on  the  whole  body  and  involves  deficiencies  in  all the  different  types  of  skin  pigments  (Kornilios,  2014; Lucati  and  Lopes-Baucells,  2016).  Another  type  of hypopigmentation is piebaldism, also known as partial albinism,  which  is  characterized  by  the  absence  of pigmentation in some parts of the body while the eyes present  normal  colouration  (Fertl  and  Rosel,  2002; Abreu et al., 2013). Unlike the first two conditions, in piebald  animals  the  lack  of  pigment  is  localized  and the individuals exhibit a random distribution of patches of  non-pigmented  cells  on  their  otherwise  normally coloured and patterned body (Davis, 2007)

 

Davis,  J.N.  (2007):  Color  abnormalities  in  birds:  a  proposed nomenclature for birders. Birding 39: 36–46

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Varanus Panoptes (Yellow-Spotted Monitor)

 Scholarship2015

 Varanus Panoptes (Yellow-Spotted Monitor) ToxicPrey Avoidance

 WOODWORTHIA   MACULATA   (Common   Gecko).   LEUCISM.Leucism  is  a  condition  where  the  lack  of  deposition  of  mela-nin  in  the  skin  results  in  a  white  or  pale  coloration  of  the  ani-mal, but the eyes maintain normal pigmentation (cf. albinism; Bechtel 1995. Reptile and Amphibian Variants: Colors, Patterns, and  Scales.  Krieger  Publishing  Co.,  Malabar,  Florida.  206  pp.).  Leucism  can  vary  from  partial  (<25%,  also  defined  as  piebald-ism)  to  completely  white  individuals  (van  Grouw  2006.  Dutch  Birding  28:79–89;  Rocha  and  Rebelo  2010.  Herpetol.  Notes  3:361–362). Occurrence of leucistic New Zealand geckos in the wild are uncommon (T. Jewell, pers. comm.) and the few obser-vations are generally not recorded

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Hypopigmentation in wild snakes from Uruguay

 Herpetology Notes, volume 11: 1051-1053 (2018) (published online on 29 November 2018)

 Hypopigmentation in wild snakes from Uruguay

 Victoria Machín1,*, Emilia Rossini1, Carlos Prigioni2, Francisco Kolenc2, Alejandro Crampet1, Claudio Borteiro1,2, and José Manuel Verdes11 Departamento de Patología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de la República, Alberto Lasplaces 1550, Montevideo 11600, Uruguay.2 Sección Herpetología, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, 25 de Mayo 582, Montevideo 11000, Uruguay.* Corresponding author. E-mail: victoriaamachin@gmail.com

  Occasionally, extensive reticulated white stains are present throughout the body, and less commonly white colour predominates (Cei, 1993; Giraudo 2001). This last condition, as seen in  ZVC-R  5459,  is  known  as  piebaldism,  commonly considered  among  the  incomplete  albino  phenotypes exhibited by snakes (Betchel, 1995). Boiruna maculata and  the  related  species Pseudoboa  nigra (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) are the only two Neotropical snakes  in  which  piebaldism  occurs  naturally  (Prado, 1939; Noronha et al., 2013).The  rarity  of  hypopigmentation  in  wild  snakes  from Figure 1. Hypopygmented wild snakes from Uruguay. A, Epictia munoai, adult fixed specimens with normal pattern (left) and hypopygmented (right). Inset: live normal specimen. B, amelanistic Philodryas patagoniensis, juvenile. Inset: detail of head and tongue. C, hypomelanistic Bothrops alternatus, subadult. D, piebald Boiruna maculata, adult.

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 Henkel's leaf-tailed gecko (Uroplatus henkeli)

Henkel's leaf-tailed gecko (Uroplatus henkeli)

 There are also a lot of individuals with a lot of white or black speckles, especially on their head. Those specimens that demonstrate wide white crossbands along the body are called “piebalds” or “piebs”. A piebald or pied animal is one that has a pattern of unpigmented spots (white) on a pigmented background of hair, feathers or scales (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piebald). Animals of such piebald morph are of high value among  hobbyists and tend to be the most desirable individuals of the species in the international reptiles’ market.

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 Aberrant colourations in wild snakes: case study in Neotropical taxa and a review of terminology

 Aberrant colourations in wild snakes: case study in Neotropical taxa and a review of terminology

 the  cases  of  progressive  piebald-like  depigmentation  ob-served in captive specimens of the non-Neotropical rattle-snake Crotalus  viridis,  Burmese  python Python  bivittatus, Ball python P. regius (Bechtel 1995, Broghammer 2000), and  also  free-ranging  iguanas Ctenosaura  oedirhina from Honduras (Goode & Pasachnik 2016, as piebaldism), are of  unconfirmed  hereditary  disposition.  Besides,  reports of  leucism  in  the  Neotropical  lizards Iguana  iguana  from Colombia,  and Amphisbaena  darwini  trachura and Tropi­durus  hispidus from  Brazil,  are  likely  cases  of  piebaldism according to their colour patterns (Chalkidis & Di-Ber-nardo  2004, Ayala-Monedero  &  Álvarez-León  2014, Sanches et al. 2019). Piebald  snakes  show  white  spots,  patches  or  a  pre-dominantly  white  skin  (Prüst  1984, Bechtel  1995),  and are very uncommon in the wild (Dodd 2000, Kornilios2014, Gross et al. 2016). They are particularly appreciated by  reptile  keepers,  who  sometimes  call  them  just  “pieds” (Broghammer 2000). In captive Ball pythons (Python re­gius), piebaldism is based upon a recessive Mendelian in-heritance (Broghammer 2000). Our local examples most-ly concern Boiruna maculata (Boulenger 1896, Cei 1993, Giraudo  2001, Scott  et  al.  2006, Carreira  et  al.  2018, Machín  et  al.  2018)  and Pseudoboanigra (Prado  1939, Noronha et al. 2013) of the tribe Pseudoboini, but also sin-gle cases known from Mastigodryas boddaerti (Nicéforo1958)  and Atractus  zebrinus (this  study).  The  first  two  are usually black snakes, being piebalds scarcely spotted with white (Boulenger 1896), fairly stained white (Fig. 3A), or primarily white (e.g., Giraudo 2001, Noronha et al. 2013, Machín et al. 2018). The occurrence of normal colours on the head slightly extending posteriorly was constant in the studied  cases  and  may  therefore  allow  for  differentiating them  from  other  melanin-related  defects.  Although  well-known as a common genetic defect in domestic mammals (Mahabal et al. 2019), the rarity of piebaldism in wild rep-tiles  and  researchers  being  not  familiar  with  colour  vari-ants in other vertebrate groups may explain the misclassifi-cations in previous works.

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 Piebaldism in Roatán Spiny-tailed Iguanas, Ctenosaura oedirhina.

 Source: Herpetological Bulletin . Summer2016, Issue 136, p23-28. 6p.

Author(s): GOODE, ASHLEY B. C.; PASACHNIK, STESHA A.

 Piebaldism in Roatán Spiny-tailed Iguanas, Ctenosaura oedirhina.  

 piebaldism is a type of leucism where individuals have normal-coloured eyes, but exhibit white patches, giving them a blotched or mottled appearance. It is a common form of abnormal colouration. Some species show an ontogenetic shift in this patchy colouration, while others start life with a piebald appearance. We studied colouration across populations of Roatan Spiny-tailed Iguanas (Ctenosaura oedirhina), a species endemic to the island of Roatan, Honduras. In general this lizard exhibits an ontogenetic shift in colouration from grey with green mottling in hatchlings to dark grey/black with white or cream patches in adults; however, there is substantial colour variation among both adults and populations. Based on an ordinal regression analysis there is a significant positive trend between size (snout-vent length) and percentage of white colouration, suggesting an ontogenetic shift toward increasing piebaldism. Additional data, specifically recapture and genetic information, are needed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for these patterns.

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Another Case of Piebaldism in Blanus strauchi (Bedriaga, 1884) from

Color malformations such as albinism and melanism are common among the animals. Color pigments have a great role on these anomalies. Lack of color pigments can be seen on the whole body or only some parts. If this deficiency seen in the whole body, it is called albinism. Piebaldism is the lack of pigment in some parts of the body without any change in the color of the eyes also known as regional albinism. In this study we observed “piebaldism” in some of the Blanus strauchi specimens from Kaş, Antalya. Polymorphic individuals were also detected from the same locality as specimens with normal coloration.