Atypical colorations resulting from a deficiency of colour pigments are often reported in the herpetological literature. Such conditions may affect the entire body or only part of it and can range from “true” albinism, a hereditary lack of pigmentation caused by a deficiency in one of the enzymes involved in melanin synthesis, in which the animal completely lacks pigmentation in all portions of the body, including the eyes, to leucism, characterized by a deficiency in integumentary pigmentation while still preserving normally pigmented eyes. This last condition is usually caused by developmental anomalies in the differentiation of the pigment cells, do not necessarily involve genetic mutations and may be restricted to some body regions (thus generating a “piebald” phenotype (Acevedo, Torres and Aguayo-Lobo, 2009)) or to the whole body, with the exception of the retina (Dyrkacz, 1981)
A nonsense mutation in TFEC is the likely cause of the recessive piebald phenotype in ball pythons
Abstract13 Captive-bred ball pythons (Pythonregius) represent a powerful model system for studying the 14genetic basis of colour variation and Mendelian phenotypes in vertebrates. Although hundreds 15of Mendelian phenotypes (colour morphs) affecting colouration and patterning have been 16described for ball pythons, the genes causing these colour morphs remain unknown. Here, we 17used crowdsourcing of samples from commercial ball python breeders to investigate the 18genetic basis of a classic phenotype found in the pet trade, the piebald [characterized by 19dorsolateral patches of unpigmented (white) skin]. We used whole-genome sequencing of 20pooled samples followed by population genetic methods to delineate the genomic region 21containing the causal gene. We identified TFEC of the MIT-family of transcription factors as a 22candidate gene. Functional annotation of SNPs identified a nonsense mutation in TFEC, which 23we conclude is the likely causal variant for the piebald phenotype. Our work shows that ball 24python colour morphs have the potential to be an excellent model system for studying the 25genetic basis of pigment variation in vertebrates, and highlights how collaborations with 26commercial breeders can accelerate discoveries.272829303132(which was not certified by peer review) is the author/funder. All rights reserved. No reuse allowed without permission. The copyright holder for this preprintthis version posted November 1, 2020. ; https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.30.362970doi: bioRxiv preprint
Herpetology Notes, volume 8: 179-181 (2015) (published online on 10 April 2015)
Leucism in the Amazonian diurnal frog Anomaloglossus stepheni (Martins, 1989) (Anura: Aromobatidae)
Leandro João Carneiro de Lima Moraes1,* and Igor Luis Kaefer21 Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA. Av. Efigênio Sales 2239, 69060-020, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil2 Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, Av. Rodrigo Octávio 6200, 69077-000, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. * Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Phenotypic abnormalities in coloration patterns can occur in individuals of a certain species usually due to genetic or environmental factors that cause an excess or deficit in the metabolism of dermal pigmentation, restricted to a region or throughout the entire body (Duellman and Trueb, 1994; Hayley-McCardle, 2012). Several divergent classifications for these events are based on extent of pigmentation loss, but among the main recognized types we can cite the piebaldism, leucism and albinism (Miller, 2005; Abreu et al., 2013). Piebaldism occurs when there are depigmented blotches along the animal’s body (Acevedo et al., 2009) and leucism when the animal’s body is partially or totally depigmented, with remaining margins of the body and eyes pigmented, as albinism occurs in animals with complete absence of pigmentation, including the eyes, which becomes reddish or pink (Fertl and Rosel, 2002; Miller, 2005). Although many cases of depigmentation for the major vertebrates lineages are documented, such as for fishes (e.g., Teixeira and Araújo, 2002), birds (e.g., Nogueira and Alves, 2011), reptiles (e.g., Abegg et al., 2014; Erickson and Kaefer, in press), mammals (e.g., Abreu et al., 2013) and amphibians (e.g.,Toledo et al., 2011; Elgue et al., 2013),
Herpetology Notes, volume 11: 1009-1019 (2018) (published online on 27 November 2018)
New records and an updated list of the herpetofauna of Kastellorizo and the adjacent islet Psomi (Dodecanese, SE Greece)
Konstantinos Kalaentzis1,*, Ilias Strachinis1, Philippos Katsiyiannis2, Peter Oefinger3, and Christos Kazilas11 School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTH), 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.2 Present address: Kato Platanovrysi, 25008 Achaia, Greece.3
During our visit in May 2017 one of the four Anatolian Worm Lizards observed, presented piebald morphotype
Herpetology Notes, volume 11: 527-529 (2018) (published online on 25 July 2018)
A case of piebaldism in the Anatolian Worm Lizard, Blanus strauchi (Bedriaga, 1884), from Kastellorizo Island, Greece (Squamata: Blanidae)Christos Kazilas1,*, Konstantinos Kalaentzis1, and Ilias Strachinis11 School of Biology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece* Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com
Chromatic aberrations are pigmentation anomalies that lead to abnormal colour variation of the skin and derivatives (Rook et al., 1998). Such disorders may be caused by a deficiency of colour pigments and they can be described by various terms, although there is a general confusion as to their correct usage in the literature (Lucati and Lopes-Baucells, 2016; Zalapa et al., 2016). The term albinism is used to describe a congenital and inherited condition where melanocytes fail to produce normal amounts of melanin in eyes, skin, or both, through recessive allele expression (Bechtel, 1991). In contrast, leucism refers to the absence of pigmentation on the whole body and involves deficiencies in all the different types of skin pigments (Kornilios, 2014; Lucati and Lopes-Baucells, 2016). Another type of hypopigmentation is piebaldism, also known as partial albinism, which is characterized by the absence of pigmentation in some parts of the body while the eyes present normal colouration (Fertl and Rosel, 2002; Abreu et al., 2013). Unlike the first two conditions, in piebald animals the lack of pigment is localized and the individuals exhibit a random distribution of patches of non-pigmented cells on their otherwise normally coloured and patterned body (Davis, 2007)
Davis, J.N. (2007): Color abnormalities in birds: a proposed nomenclature for birders. Birding 39: 36–46
Varanus Panoptes (Yellow-Spotted Monitor) ToxicPrey Avoidance
WOODWORTHIA MACULATA (Common Gecko). LEUCISM.Leucism is a condition where the lack of deposition of mela-nin in the skin results in a white or pale coloration of the ani-mal, but the eyes maintain normal pigmentation (cf. albinism; Bechtel 1995. Reptile and Amphibian Variants: Colors, Patterns, and Scales. Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, Florida. 206 pp.). Leucism can vary from partial (<25%, also defined as piebald-ism) to completely white individuals (van Grouw 2006. Dutch Birding 28:79–89; Rocha and Rebelo 2010. Herpetol. Notes 3:361–362). Occurrence of leucistic New Zealand geckos in the wild are uncommon (T. Jewell, pers. comm.) and the few obser-vations are generally not recorded
Herpetology Notes, volume 11: 1051-1053 (2018) (published online on 29 November 2018)
Hypopigmentation in wild snakes from Uruguay
Victoria Machín1,*, Emilia Rossini1, Carlos Prigioni2, Francisco Kolenc2, Alejandro Crampet1, Claudio Borteiro1,2, and José Manuel Verdes11 Departamento de Patología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de la República, Alberto Lasplaces 1550, Montevideo 11600, Uruguay.2 Sección Herpetología, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, 25 de Mayo 582, Montevideo 11000, Uruguay.* Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Occasionally, extensive reticulated white stains are present throughout the body, and less commonly white colour predominates (Cei, 1993; Giraudo 2001). This last condition, as seen in ZVC-R 5459, is known as piebaldism, commonly considered among the incomplete albino phenotypes exhibited by snakes (Betchel, 1995). Boiruna maculata and the related species Pseudoboa nigra (Duméril, Bibron & Duméril, 1854) are the only two Neotropical snakes in which piebaldism occurs naturally (Prado, 1939; Noronha et al., 2013).The rarity of hypopigmentation in wild snakes from Figure 1. Hypopygmented wild snakes from Uruguay. A, Epictia munoai, adult fixed specimens with normal pattern (left) and hypopygmented (right). Inset: live normal specimen. B, amelanistic Philodryas patagoniensis, juvenile. Inset: detail of head and tongue. C, hypomelanistic Bothrops alternatus, subadult. D, piebald Boiruna maculata, adult.
Henkel's leaf-tailed gecko (Uroplatus henkeli)
There are also a lot of individuals with a lot of white or black speckles, especially on their head. Those specimens that demonstrate wide white crossbands along the body are called “piebalds” or “piebs”. A piebald or pied animal is one that has a pattern of unpigmented spots (white) on a pigmented background of hair, feathers or scales (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piebald). Animals of such piebald morph are of high value among hobbyists and tend to be the most desirable individuals of the species in the international reptiles’ market.
Aberrant colourations in wild snakes: case study in Neotropical taxa and a review of terminology
the cases of progressive piebald-like depigmentation ob-served in captive specimens of the non-Neotropical rattle-snake Crotalus viridis, Burmese python Python bivittatus, Ball python P. regius (Bechtel 1995, Broghammer 2000), and also free-ranging iguanas Ctenosaura oedirhina from Honduras (Goode & Pasachnik 2016, as piebaldism), are of unconfirmed hereditary disposition. Besides, reports of leucism in the Neotropical lizards Iguana iguana from Colombia, and Amphisbaena darwini trachura and Tropidurus hispidus from Brazil, are likely cases of piebaldism according to their colour patterns (Chalkidis & Di-Ber-nardo 2004, Ayala-Monedero & Álvarez-León 2014, Sanches et al. 2019). Piebald snakes show white spots, patches or a pre-dominantly white skin (Prüst 1984, Bechtel 1995), and are very uncommon in the wild (Dodd 2000, Kornilios2014, Gross et al. 2016). They are particularly appreciated by reptile keepers, who sometimes call them just “pieds” (Broghammer 2000). In captive Ball pythons (Python regius), piebaldism is based upon a recessive Mendelian in-heritance (Broghammer 2000). Our local examples most-ly concern Boiruna maculata (Boulenger 1896, Cei 1993, Giraudo 2001, Scott et al. 2006, Carreira et al. 2018, Machín et al. 2018) and Pseudoboanigra (Prado 1939, Noronha et al. 2013) of the tribe Pseudoboini, but also sin-gle cases known from Mastigodryas boddaerti (Nicéforo1958) and Atractus zebrinus (this study). The first two are usually black snakes, being piebalds scarcely spotted with white (Boulenger 1896), fairly stained white (Fig. 3A), or primarily white (e.g., Giraudo 2001, Noronha et al. 2013, Machín et al. 2018). The occurrence of normal colours on the head slightly extending posteriorly was constant in the studied cases and may therefore allow for differentiating them from other melanin-related defects. Although well-known as a common genetic defect in domestic mammals (Mahabal et al. 2019), the rarity of piebaldism in wild rep-tiles and researchers being not familiar with colour vari-ants in other vertebrate groups may explain the misclassifi-cations in previous works.
Source: Herpetological Bulletin . Summer2016, Issue 136, p23-28. 6p.
Author(s): GOODE, ASHLEY B. C.; PASACHNIK, STESHA A.
Piebaldism in Roatán Spiny-tailed Iguanas, Ctenosaura oedirhina.
piebaldism is a type of leucism where individuals have normal-coloured eyes, but exhibit white patches, giving them a blotched or mottled appearance. It is a common form of abnormal colouration. Some species show an ontogenetic shift in this patchy colouration, while others start life with a piebald appearance. We studied colouration across populations of Roatan Spiny-tailed Iguanas (Ctenosaura oedirhina), a species endemic to the island of Roatan, Honduras. In general this lizard exhibits an ontogenetic shift in colouration from grey with green mottling in hatchlings to dark grey/black with white or cream patches in adults; however, there is substantial colour variation among both adults and populations. Based on an ordinal regression analysis there is a significant positive trend between size (snout-vent length) and percentage of white colouration, suggesting an ontogenetic shift toward increasing piebaldism. Additional data, specifically recapture and genetic information, are needed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for these patterns.
Color malformations such as albinism and melanism are common among the animals. Color pigments have a great role on these anomalies. Lack of color pigments can be seen on the whole body or only some parts. If this deficiency seen in the whole body, it is called albinism. Piebaldism is the lack of pigment in some parts of the body without any change in the color of the eyes also known as regional albinism. In this study we observed “piebaldism” in some of the Blanus strauchi specimens from Kaş, Antalya. Polymorphic individuals were also detected from the same locality as specimens with normal coloration.